Some official sources call the current situation in Russia the fifth wave of emigration (there were four waves in the 20th century, the last of them in the 90s).
Regardless of whether emigration from Russia has reached the scale of a wave or not yet, in the first half of 2014, 70% more people left the country than in the first half of 2013. These statistics take into account, however, not only Russian citizens, but also foreigners, so not a small part of these 70% are labor migrants who have returned home and read translate english to hindi.
Be that as it may, today many people are thinking about emigration to other countries, so a review of the main language requirements and exams when moving to permanent residence seems more relevant than ever.
Exams for moving to Spain
Spain is one of the most hospitable and loyal countries to emigrants. Getting a residence permit in Spain is not difficult at all, and for those who live in the country illegally, the government provides amnesties every few years. This is a country with a wonderful climate, friendly, cheerful people and a beautiful, relatively uncomplicated and very promising language. Spanish is the native language of 35 million people. It is spoken not only in Spain, but also in some countries in Africa and Latin America.
The Spanish proficiency test for foreigners is called DELE. DELE is divided into three levels: A1-A2, B1-B2 and C1-C2. Each level consists of five standard task types: text, essay or composition, listening, grammar, and interview.
The exam is considered passed if you get a positive mark on each of the tasks. If, after passing four tasks, you fail the fifth, the exam will have to be retaken.
Exams for moving to France
The French proficiency exams are called DALF and DELF. These exams are not just a grammar or vocabulary test, they are primarily aimed at seeing how fluently you can use French in certain situations: at work, at university, in everyday life. The structure of the exams is similar to each other, they are both open-ended, the main difference between DELF and DALF is the level of difficulty: DALF is more difficult, DELF is easier.
It is necessary to prepare for these exams seriously and purposefully, the tasks there are specific, and quite a bit of time is allotted for their implementation.
DALF and DELF are divided into several levels of difficulty, each level can be taken in any order.
Exams for moving to Italy
In Italy, with everyone who wants to get a residence permit, the government enters into an agreement under which, within two years, each foreigner must earn a certain number of points. Points are awarded for success in adapting to life in a new country: for mastering the language, knowledge of the laws, getting an education, buying a house or finding a job.
Help in the accumulation of points and certificates confirming knowledge of the Italian language. The Italian exams are called CILS and CELI. These exams have four levels of difficulty. To enter the university, you must pass an exam of at least the second level of complexity. There is no fundamental difference between the exams, you just need to study the structure and features of each of them and choose the one that suits you best.
Exams for moving to German-speaking countries
There are many exams for knowledge of the German language. The most basic knowledge of the language (communication skills in everyday life) is tested by the Start Deutsch 1 and Start Deutsch 2 exams. These exams can help, for example, with employment. If your goal is to become a citizen, you will need to pass higher level exams, the TestDaF (comparable to English-language IELTS) or the DSH test. Like IELTS, TestDaF does not so much check vocabulary or knowledge of grammar, but, above all, the ability to use the German language in any, even the most non-standard situations.
Exams for moving to English-speaking countries
There are two main English proficiency exams – IELTS and TOEFL. IELTS is an exam that tests knowledge of British English, and TOEFL is American. Therefore, you need to choose which exam to take based on where you are going to move.
As for IELTS, there are two options: Academic Module (for applicants) and General Module (for those who are going to leave for permanent residence in Canada, Australia or New Zealand). Both options consist of four standard types of tasks: text, essay or composition, listening and interview. For each of the tasks, you can get a maximum of 9 points. The final grade is the arithmetic mean of four grades.
In order to enter an American university, you need to take the TOEFL. The minimum passing score is 250 points.
Despite the fact that not all countries require a certificate confirming language proficiency, having one will greatly facilitate the process of adapting to life in a new country.